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1.

The abstract and introduction of a research proposal sets the tone for the rest of the paper.  It shows the readers the reason, opinion and purpose of your writing. It also helps persuade your audience in your opinion and asks and answers questions that keep the readers interested. Something you may question prior to beginning your writing is if you know your audience, and if so, how well do they know the topic you are researching.  The writer wants to be sure the audience is kept engaged in the writing so they keep their attention on what you are trying to prove in your research.

Another important aspect if writing is choosing literature or journals that are deemed reliable to your audience.  Peer reviewed articles are the most reliable as they have gone through a rigorous process before being published.  Peer reviewed literature is a great source to add in your writing as it shows you have researched your topic with valid sources.  If writers decide to use other articles that have not been peer reviewed or verified, it may add to the research, but the credibility of the work being references can be questioned, which leaves the entire research paper up to scrutiny.

While writing, although you want to address your audience, you want to avoid first and second person.  This is viewed as unprofessional and more casual than you want a research paper to portray.  Writers who are taking the time to write a research paper want to be formal and professional.  This also adds to the appearance of the paper, making it seem more valid.  Since all readers have different opinions, a writer also wants to be sure not to demand a reader think a certain way or have a certain opinion, instead, an item should be suggested throughout the writing.  If you set a tone that your opinion is the correct opinion, this can deter readers from having interest in your writing, especially if they may have a different opinion than yours.

Narrative hooks are a way to gain interest in your reader throughout your writing.  This is a way the writer gets the audiences attention for the rest of the writing. If you draw attention straight to the problem or issue being discusses, this is known as the narrative hook. If you circle around the issue being presented, enticing the reader and making the subject interesting enough that they want to read more, this is known as the narrative bait.  Both the narrative bait and hook are important factors of the writing as this is what draws audiences in to read your writing.

A type of narrative bait that is common and successful in writings in rhetorical questions. These can be successful in writings as it will make the reader think about your topic and in turn make them interested in reading more about your writing topic.  It is not suggested this be used in a scholarly writing as it leaves room for bias and opinion, when the scholarly writing should be based on facts.

References

Adapting to your audience. (2016). Retrieved from http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/

John Jay College of Criminal Justice. (2016). Retrieved from http://guides.lib.jjay.cuny.edu/c.php?g=288333&p=1922599.

Koopman, P. (1997). How to Write an Abstract. Carnegie Mellon University. RetriLancaster, F.W. (2003). Indexing and abstracting in theory and practice. (3rd ed.). London, England: Facet.
Q2.

The abstract speaks for the proposal when it is separated from it, provides the reader with his or her first impression of the request by acting as a summary, frequently provides the reader their last impression. (Blake, 2007) Some reviewers/researchers read only the abstract to get the cliff notes of the information. It is the most important single element in the proposal.

In all cases, the abstract should be the very last thing you write. It should be a completely independent, self-contained text, not an excerpt copied from your paper or dissertation. An abstract should be fully understandable on its own to someone who hasn’t read your full paper or related sources.

The easiest approach to writing an abstract is to imitate the structure of the larger paper. You should think of it as a miniature version of your dissertation or research paper. In most cases, this means the abstract should contain key elements. (Finkelstein, 2004)

Not all abstracts will contain precisely the same elements. If your research has a different structure. For example, you can write your abstract through a process of reverse outlining.

For each paragraph or section, list keywords and draft a couple sentences that summarize the central point or argument. This will give you a framework of your abstract’s structure. (Blake, 2007) Then revise the sentences to make connections and show how the argument develops.

The abstract should tell a condensed version of the whole story, and it should only include information that can be found in the main text. Reread your abstract to make sure it gives a clear summary of your overall argument.

Using a narrative hook is to engage readers to continue reading. This is a critical component to their writing. Your audience receives a first impression about your work. Therefore, no matter how good the rest of your essay is, if you can’t make a good first impression, you are going lose your readers, which is why you always must create a good hook for an essay! Your intro will help make your paper worthy and memorable. Rhetorical question should not be used in your hook. A rhetorical question may have an obvious answer, but the questioner asks it to lay emphasis to the point. (Singleton, 2001) This could be confusing if the reader comes to the wrong point. Your narrative hook will not have a rhythm to the paper if you throw spots of questioning within the main idea. The idea of the rhetorical question maybe meaningless, but again its intention is to make a point more prominent. The narrative hook should create a space within which the reader is able to establish a genuine connection with the narrative/essay. On the one hand, it should be unusual, unexpected and unconventional, but on the other, it should consist of some point of relevance and familiarity.